Checklist of the Exhibition Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe

The information included has been compiled by the Walters Art Museum in consultation with the lending institutions. Dates, attributions, and titles given herein may diverge from those given by essay authors.  The organization of this checklist follows the layout of the exhibition in Baltimore. All works are illustrated in the exhibition publication.


Introduction

1.

Gerard David and workshop (Flemish, ca. 1460–1523)

Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1515

Oil on panel; 64.2 x 82 cm

Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey (y1932-34)

Provenance: Stora, Spain; Princeton University Art Museum, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Koch 1985, 82-87; Wang 2000; Devisse and Mollat 2010a, 198

Comparative Bibliography: Kaplan 1985; Pinson 1996; Massing 2008; Koerner 2010


Perceptions of Africa

2.

Adriaen Collaert (Flemish, ca. 1560–1618) after Maarten de Vos (Flemish, 1532–1603)

Allegory of Africa

From a series of The Four Continents, ca. 1588

Engraving (second state); 20.8 x 25.9 cm (clipped)

Inscriptions in Latin: Bottom left: M. de Vos inven. [Maarten de Vos invented {it}]; Bottom center: Adrian. Collaert scalps. et excud. [Adriaen Collaert engraved and published {it}]; Four lines of Latin in two columns in margin: Tertia, terga premens crocodili, decolor aestu / Perpete, balsameum dextra tenet Africa ramum: / Tertia; sed rerum praestans novitate stupenda / Primas pyramidum fert molibus aeternarum. [Africa is the third {continent in this series of four} who, her color altered by the heat, sits on the back of a crocodile and perpetually holds in her right hand a branch of balsam. They say she is the third, but she is superior [to the others] for the astonishing novelty of her aspects, of which the most famous are those most distinguished buildings, the eternal pyramids]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, gift of the Estate of James Hazen Hyde, 1959 (59.654.9)

Provenance: Estate of James Hazen Hyde, Paris; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1959, by gift

Selected Bibliography: New Hollstein 1993, Collaert, part VI, no. 1316

Comparative Bibliography: McGrath 2000, 46, 50-51; Dackerman 2011, no. 102 (Adam Jasiensky)


3.

Italian (Florence?)

African on Horseback Attacked by a Lion, ca. 1600

Bronze; 28.7 x 23.8 x 17.5 cm

Philadelphia Museum of Art, purchased with funds contributed by Mr. and Mrs. George D. Widener from the Edmond Foulc Collection, 1930 (1930-1-14)

Provenance: Collection of Edmond Foulc; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1930, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Stites 1930; Northampton 1964, no. 26 (Pope-Hennessy); Bode 1980, 8, XIV, no. 2; Massing 2011, 341

Comparative Bibliography: London 2010, 100-13


4.

Michael Wolgemut (German, 1434/37–1519) and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff (German, ca. 1458–1494)

Map of the Known World with Strange Peoples of Africa and Asia

From Hartmann Schedel, Liber Chronicarum [Chronicle of the world]. Full title:  Registrum huius operis libri cronicarum cu[m] figuris et ymagi[ni]bus ab inicio mu[n]di Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 1493.

Woodcut and watercolor (later); each folio 42.3 x 29.4 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (91.1262, pp. xiiv–xiiir)

Provenance: Henry Walters, 1905, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Burin 1992, 2-3

Comparative Bibliography: Wilson 1977, 115; Hanover 1991, no. 5; Füssel 2001; Baltimore 2002, no. 7 (Dackerman); Devisse and Mollat 2010a, 242-43

Baltimore only


5.

Michael Wolgemut (German, 1434/37–1519) and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff (German, ca. 1458–1494)

Ptolemaic World Map with Strange Peoples of Other Lands

From Hartmann Schedel, Liber Chronicarum [Chronicle of the world]. Full title:  Registrum huius operis libri cronicarum cu[m] figuris et ymagi[ni]bus ab inicio mu[n]di. Nuremberg: A. Koberger, 1493.

Woodcut and watercolor (later); closed book: 47.4 x 34 x 8.5 cm

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] 1016.816f copy 3)

Provenance: Formerly in the collection of Charles Butler of Warren Wood, Hatfield.

Selected Bibliography: Burin 1992, 2-3

Comparative Bibliography: see under no. 4

Princeton only


6. 

Map of Africa

From Sebastian Münster (German, 1489–1552), Cosmographia universalis lib.VI [Universal   Cosmographia, 6 books]. First edition 1540; Cologne: The Heirs of A. Byrckmann, 1575.

Woodcut with hand coloring; each folio 32.2 x 19.2 cm

Inscription in Italian at top: Tavola & discrizzione universale di tutta l’Africa, distesa anche piu la che i termini di Tolomeo [Image and universal description of all of Africa, extended  even beyond the borders of Ptolemy]

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (92.112, map 13)

Provenance: Henry Walters, Baltimore, prior to 1931 [mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Baltimore only

Selected Bibliography: Not published

Comparative Bibliography: Ruland 1962; McLean 2007; Betz 2007


7. 

Map of Africa

From Sebastian Münster, Totius Africae tabula, & descriptio universalis, etiam ultra Ptolemaei limites extensa [Map and universal description of the whole of Africa, even beyond the limits of Ptolemy]. Basel: Henricum Petrum, 1554.

Woodcut with hand coloring; 26 x 35 cm

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey, Rare Books and Special Collections (HMC01.3540)

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: see under no. 7

Princeton only (not illustrated)


8.

North Italian

Oil Lamp in the Shape of an African’s Head, ca. 1540

Bronze; 4 x 7.8 x 4 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (54.1716)

Provenance: Acquired by Henry Walters; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Seelig 2005, 194-195; Cleveland 1975, fig. 81; Planiscig 1927, fig. 198


9.

North Italian

Oil Lamp in the Shape of an African’s Head, ca. 1520

Brass; 6 x 5.5 x 9.2 cm

Matthew Brudniak, Washington, D.C.

Provenance: Purchased from Mark Wilchusky Fine Art, New York

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: see under no. 8  


10.

Greek (Ancient)

Aryballos in the Shape of an African’s Head, ca. 480–430 bce

Terracotta; 9.3 x 4.6 x 6.5 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (48.2017)

Provenance: Joseph Brummer, New York [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Joseph Brummer sale, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 8–9 June 1949, part 3 no. 2; Walters Art Museum, 1949, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Kent Hill 1953, 60-64; Oakley 1992, 51

Comparative Bibliography: D’Agostino 1960, 132-35; Snowden 1970; Beardsley 1979; Biers 1983; Snowden 2010


11.

Meroitic (Ancient Nubia)

Oil Lamp in the Shape of a Bound Captive, 700–200 bce

Bronze; 9 x 10.4 x 24.4 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (54.1549)

Provenance: Guilhou Sale, 1905, lot 307; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1905, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Reinach 1913, 355, no.1; Shultz and Henry, forthcoming

Comparative Bibliography: Priese 1997, no. 274; Török 2004; Sackho-Autissier 2010; Leclant 2010


12.

Ethiopian (Gunda Gunde style, associated with the monastery of that name)

John the Evangelist

From a Gospel Book, ca. 1540

Tempera and ink on parchment with wood board; each folio 30.2 x 25 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, museum purchase with funds provided by the W. Alton Jones Foundation Acquisition Fund, 1998 (w.850, fols. 153v–154r)

Provenance: Church, Mädhane Aläm at Mäjate, Ethiopia, 1892–93 [mode of acquisition unknown]; private collection, France, prior to 1973 [mode of acquisition unknown]; with Sam Fogg, London [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1998, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Whole book: Mercier 2004, 122; Mann 2004; Baltimore 2001, no. 14 (Mann)

Comparative Bibliography: Haile 1993


13.

Sierra Leone (Sapi-Portuguese style)

Pyx with Scenes from the Passion of Christ, ca. 1520

Ivory (cover is lost); 7.9 x 10.9 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (71.108)

Provenance: Henry Walters, Baltimore [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Randall 1985, no. 467; Massing 2007, 75;

Comparative Bibliography: New York 1988, 83 (Bassani and Fagg); Mark 2007.

Baltimore only


14.

Portrait of a Giraffe  

From Pierre Belon, Les Observations de plusiers singularitez & choses memorables trouvées en Grece, Asie, Iudée, Egypte, Arabie, & autres pays estranges [Observations on many singular and memorable things found in Greece, Asia, Judea, Egypt, Arabia, and other foreign countries]. Anvers, De l’Imprimerie de C. Plantin, 1555.

Woodcut; closed book: 23 x 16.5 x 3.5 cm

Inscription in French: Portraict de la Giraffe [portrait of a giraffe] 

Princeton University Library, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] 8672.163.11, p. 118v)

Provenance: Presented by the Carnegie Foundation

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Ashworth, Jr. 1991, 118-121


15.

Black Moors

From Cesare Vecellio, Habiti antichi et moderni di tutto il mondo [Ancient and modern costumes of the whole world]. Venice: Giovanni Bernardo Sessa, 1598.

Woodcut; 17.9 x 11 cm

Inscription in Italian: Mori neri [Black Moors]

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (92.347, p. 439b)

Provenance: Gruel-Engelmann, Paris; The Walters Art Museum, by gift

Baltimore: p. 439b

Princeton: p. 430b “Moro di Conditione”

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished 

Comparative Bibliography: Rosenthal and Jones 2008


16.

Wealthy Moor

From Cesare Vecellio, Habiti antichi et moderni di tutto il mondo [Ancient and modern costumes of the whole world]. Venice: Giovanni Bernardo Sessa, 1590.

Woodcut; 18 x 11.2 cm

Inscription in Italian: MORO DI| CONDI-|TIONE [A Wealthy Moor]

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. Gift of Mimi Powell (92.348, p. 486b)

Provenance: Philip Stanhope (ex libris on front pastedown); Mimi Powell; The Walters Art Museum, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Rosenthal and Jones 2008

Baltimore only


17.

Cesare Vecellio

De gli habiti antichi, et moderni di diuerse parti del mondo [Ancient and modern costumes of the whole world]. Venice: Presso Damian Zenaro, 1590.

Closed book: 19 x 13.4 x 9.3 cm

Princeton University Library, Princeton, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] GT513.V49 1590)

Provenance: Robert Hoe; Cortland Field Bishop; Sinclair Hamilton, Class of 1906, by gift 1966;  

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Rosenthal and Jones 2008

Princeton only (not illustrated)


18.

Theodor de Bry (Flemish, 1528-98)

Gabonese King Receiving Dutch Explorers

From Jan Huygen van Linschoten, Indiae Orientalis, Pars I and II: Navigatio in Orientiem [The East Indies, parts I and II: Voyages in the Orient] (Frankfurt: Wolfgang Richter, 1599)

Engraving; closed book: 32 x 21 x 3 cm

Inscription in Latin: Quae Batavis apud Cermentinum pagum acciderunt [What happened to the Batavians {the Dutch] in the district of Cermentinum]

The William H. Scheide Library, Princeton University, (Scheide 32.5.7, plate 2)

Provenance: Samuel Scott; Edward Henry Scott (19th-century armorial bookplates)

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Alexander 1976; Berger 1979-81; Groesen 2008

 

19.

 Clothing of the inhabitants of Cairo

From Leo Africanus (al-Hasan al-Wazzan or Giovanni Leone de' Medici), Historiale description de l’Afrique [Illustrated Description of Africa]. Lyon: Jean Temporal, 1556.

Engraving; closed book: 33.8 x 23 x 6.6 cm

Inscription in French: Habits des habitans du Caire [clothing of the inhabitants of Cairo]

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] 1804.579.11q, p. 353)

Provenance: Gift of Timothy N. Pfeiffer

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Rauschenberger 1999; Black 2002; Davis 2007; Lowe 2007, 114


20. Great Pyramid of Giza

From Sebastiano Serlio, Regole generali di architettura, Libro Terzo [General rules of architecture, third book]. Venice: F. Marcolini, 1540.

Woodcut on blue paper; 42.3 x 26.7 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (92.634, p. xciiii)

Provenance: Henry Walters, Baltimore [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Onians 1988, 263-310; Thoenes 1989; Hart and Hicks 1996; Curran 2007, 154-56


21.

Léonard Limosin (French: Limoges, ca. 1505­–ca. 1575)

Idealized Portrait of Dido, ca. 1540

From a pair with Idealized Portrait of Aeneas

Painted enamel on copper; 30.3 x 24.8 cm 

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (44.240)

Provenance: Castle of Gaillon (?); George Robinson Harding, London [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; William T. / Henry Walters Collection, Baltimore [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Verdier 1967, 172-75, no. 106(b); Sebaï 1995, 50-51; Écouen 2010, 44

Comparative Bibliography: Baratte 1993; Jong 2009


22.

Niccolò Roccatagliata (Italian: Venice, active 1593–1636)

Cleopatra and the Asp, ca. 1615

Bronze; height 22.3cm

The Robert H. Smith Collection

Provenance: Sylvia Adams Collection, sold at Bonham’s, Knightsbridge, 23 May 1996, Part V, lot 38 (as “Cleopatra committing suicide, after Aspetti, 18th/19th century”); Galerie Rudigier, Munich; Private Collection, 2008

Selected Bibliography: Manfred Leithe-Jasper 2012 (forthcoming)

Comparative Bibliography: Venturi 1937, 378-97; Geneva 2004; Serres and Sturman 2007, 35-39, no. 60-61


Africans in Christian Art

23.

Giuseppe Cesari, known as Il Cavaliere d’Arpino (Italian, 1568–1640)

Judith with the Head of Holofernes, ca. 1605  

Oil on canvas; 61.3 x 47.9 cm

University of California, Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, bequest of Andrew C. Lawson (1943.2)

Provenance: Collection of Andrew C. Lawson; Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Bissell 1999, 210

Comparative Bibliography: Kaplan 2005


24.

Girolamo da Santacroce (Italian: Venice, 1480/85–1556)

Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1525–30

Oil on panel; 67.7 x 81.2 cm

Inscription in Latin: on the scroll held by three angels: GLORIA IN. ALTISIMI DEO ET IN TERA PASE FRAGIL OMENI (Glory in the highest to God and on Earth peace on men of good will)

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, acquired by Henry Walters with the Massarenti Collection, 1902 (37.261)

Provenance: Pinacoteca Manfrin, Venice [cat. 1872, no. 51]; Don Marcello Massarenti Collection, Rome [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1902, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Zeri 1976, no. 276; Zafran 1987

Comparative Bibliography: Kaplan 1985; Massing 2008; Koerner 2010


25.

Italian (Venice)

The Supper at Emmaus, 1530–40

Oil on panel; 96.2 x 157.2 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (37.610)

Provenance: William T. / Henry Walters Collection, Baltimore, prior to 1909 [mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Zeri 1976, no. 169

Comparative Bibliography: Merkel 1999

Baltimore only


26.

South German Master

St. Maurice and the Theban Legion, ca. 1515–20

Oil on panel; 68.4 x 70.1 cm

Collection of Marei von Saher, the heir of Jacques Goudstikker, New York

Provenance: With Jacques Goudstikker, Amsterdam, inv. no. 2648, before 19 August  1930 (owned jointly with Richard Ederheimer and Arnold Seligmann & Cie); Richard Ederheimer's ownership interest acquired by Jacques Goudstikker before 16 May 1940; looted by the Nazi Authorities, July 1940; Arnold Seligman, Rey & Co., Inc., paid for its share by Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.C.; recovered by the Allies, 1945; in the custody of the Dutch Government; claim waived by Arnold Seligman, Rey & Co., Inc., November 1952; restituted in February 2006 to Marei von Saher, the heir of Jacques Goudstikker (subject to investigation of the status of the joint ownership); Marei von Saher, the heir of Jacques Goudstikker (confirmed as sole owner after investigation into the status of the prior joint ownership).

Selected Bibliography: Suckale-Redlefsen and Suckale 1987, no. 139; Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst 1992, no. 2946; van Eikemma Hommes 2004, 65-66; Hollander 2007, no. 190; New York 2008, 104-07, no. 8

Comparative Bibliography: Devisse 2010, 150-94.

 

27.

 Allaert Claesz (Dutch: Leiden, 1508–1555)

St. Philip Baptizing the Ethiopian Counselor, 1524  

Engraving; 26.2 x 18.7 cm

Albertina, Vienna (DG 1937/438)

Provenance: Hofbibliothek (historic Habsburg collections)

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Washington 1983, 257, no.106; Spicer 2004, New York 2009b, no. 10


28.

Flemish

St. Catherine of Alexandria Confounding the Doctors, ca. 1480

From a series on the Life of Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Oil on panel; 20.7 x 15.2 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, gift of Dr. R. Walter Graham, Jr., 1972 (37.2486)

Provenance: Leopold Blumka, New York, prior to 1943, by purchase; Dr. R. Walter Graham, Jr., Baltimore, 1971, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1972, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Jenkins and Lewis 2003


29.

French (Loire Region)

St. Augustine in His Study

From St. Jerome, Vita et Transitus [St. Jerome, Life and Death], Epistels of Psuedo-Eusebius, Psuedo-Augustine, and Psuedo-Cyril, 1472

Gouache on parchment; 20.5 x 13.1 cm

Inscription in Latin: on scroll placed on lectern, in brown ink: Iheronimo presbitero Augustinus salutem [dicit][Augustine sends greetings to the priest Jerome]

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (w. 304, fol. 59r)

Provenance: Dedication to Jean Bourré, 1472; Carmelites at Rennes, 1651; A.M. Labouchère, ca. 1820; Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Barrois of Lille; Bertram, 4th Earl of Ashburnham, 1849; Sotheby’s, London 12 June 1901, lot 273; Jacques Rosenthal, Munich; Leo S. Olschki, Florence; [Henry Walters] from Olschki, between ca. 1902 and 1931, by purchase

Baltimore only

Selected Bibliography: Randall 1992, no. 150

Comparative Bibliography: Gill 2005; Paris 1995


30.

Albrecht Dürer (German: Nuremberg 1471–1528)

St. Anthony the Abbot, 1519

Engraving; plate: 10.1 x 14.6 cm, sheet: 16 x 20.2 cm

Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey, bequest of Julie Parsons Redmond (x1960-27)

Provenance: Bequest of Julie Parsons Redmond

Princeton only

Selected Bibliography: Strauss 1981, no.89, 250-251

Comparative Bibliography: Trebbin 1994


Color and Prejudice

 

31.

Court armor maker, Prague

Helmet Visor of a Mustached Moor, ca. 1557

Iron, paint, leather, horsehair; 29 x 22 x 19 cm

Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (HJRK B62)

Provenance: Habsburg court in Prague; Schloss Ambras, Innsbruck

Selected Bibliography: Bestand Katalog 1981, no. 77

Comparative Bibliography: Innsbruck 1997, 33, no. 36; Innsbruck 2005, no. 3.3; Beaufort-Spontin and Pfaffenbichler 2005


32.

Dutch (Utrecht)

Sin Personified  and The Seven Deadly Sins

From Dirc van Delft, Tafel van den Khersten Ghelove [Picture/Handbook of the Christian faith], 1400­–1404

Gouache on parchment; fol. 90r: 18.8 x 13.9 cm, fol. 97r: 18.8 x 13.7 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (w.171)

Provenance: Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland, Zeeland, and Hainaut (1389-1404), Utrecht, ca. 1400–1405, by commission; Gruel and Engelman, Paris [date and mode of acquisition unknown] [no. 93]; Henry Walters, Baltimore, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Baltimore: fol. 97r (fig. 13)

Selected Bibliography: Whole book: Baltimore 1962, no. 67 (Verdier); New York 1990, no. 4 (Wüstefeld); New York 2009a, no. 39 (Dückers)

Comparative Bibliography: For van Delft: Oostrom 1992, 172-219

 Princeton: fol. 90r (illustrated on p. 126)


33.

The Impossible

From Emblemata Andreae Alciati [Emblems of Andrea Alciatus, known as Alciati] (Lyon: Matthias Bonhomme for Guillaume Rouille, 1548)

Woodcut; 19 x 12.5 cm

Inscriptions in Latin: Above image: Impossibile (Impossible). Below Image: Abluis Aethiopem quid frustra? Ab desine, noctis illustrare nigrae nemo potest tenebras (Why are you vainly washing an Ethiopian? Give up. No one can light up the darkness of black night)

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (92.24, fol. 57r)

Provenance: Henry Walters [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography:  Whole book: Landwehr 1976, no. 35; Baltimore 2009, no. 24 (Bagnoli)

Comparative Bibliography: Massing 1995; Koerner 2010, 18-20

Baltimore only 


34

The Impossible

From Emblemata Andreae Alciati [Emblems of Andrea Alciatus].  Lyon: Apud Gulielmum Rouillium, 1548.

Woodcut; closed book: 18.5 x 12.7 x 1.5 cm

Inscriptions in Latin: Above image: Impossibile (Impossible). Below Image: Abluis Aethiopem quid frustra? Ab desine, noctis illustrare nigrae nemo potest tenebras (Why are you vainly washing an Ethiopian? Give up. No one can light up the darkness of black night)

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey, Rare Books and Special Collections, ([Ex] N7710.A35 1548)

Provenance:  Gift of Silvain S. Brunschwig, 1956

Selected Bibliography:  Whole book: Landwehr 1976, no. 35; Baltimore 2009, no. 24 (Bagnoli)

Comparative Bibliography: Massing 1995; Koerner 2010, 18-20

Princeton only (not illustrated)


35a–b

Master of the Rinuccini Chapel (Matteo di Pacino) (Italian, active 1350–75)

The Miraculous Transplantation of the Moor’s Leg and

The Martyrdom of Saints Cosmas and Damian, ca. 1370–75  

Tempera and gold leaf on panel; two panels that make up the predella of the “pillar painting” featuring the standing figures of Saints Cosmas and Damian, left panel: 18.3 x 41 x 3.2 cm, right panel: 18.3 x 40.6 x 3.2 cm

North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, gift of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation (GL.60.17.9/b-c)

Provenance: Dr. Rudolf Bedö collection, Budapest; probably sold after January 1938, when exhibited in Budapest (see Ragghianti, 1938); Count Alessandro Contini Bonacossi, Florence; Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York, 1939; on loan to National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1945–54; gift of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation to the North Carolina Museum of Art, 1961.

Selected Bibliography: Ragghianti 1938,1; Wescher 1960, 8-13; Berenson 1963, 143; Offner and Steinweg 1965, 116, n3;  Boskovits 1966, pl 35; Shapley 1966, 35; Boskovits 1975, 57-58; Bowron 1983, 178; Boskovits 1988; Raleigh 1992, 161; Frinta 1998, 234, 512; Shahid 2005, 439; Roberts 2009, 644-45; Devisse and Mollat 2010b, 100-01; Helas 2010, 313; Raleigh 2010, 256

Comparative Bibliography:  Bellosi 1973, 179-94; Giannarelli 2002; Devisse and Mollat 2010a, 229-32


36.

Albrecht Dürer (German: Nuremberg, 1471–1528)

Four Heads

From Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion [Four Books on Human Proportion]. Nuremberg: H. Formschneyder, 1528.

Woodcut; 29.1 x 19.2cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (92.437, p. 95v)

Provenance: Bernard Quaritch, sale, 7 July 1908, cat. 265, no. 149; Henry Walters, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Panofsky 1943, 260-270; Posner 1971, 68; Kolfin 2008, 71-72; Koerner 2010, 83-90; Dackerman 2011, no. 54 (Jaya Reymond)

Baltimore only


37.

Albrecht Dürer (German: Nuremberg, 1471–1528)

Four Heads

From Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion [Four Books on Human Proportion]. Nuremberg: H. Formschneyder, 1528.

Woodcut; closed book: 31 x 21 x 4.4 cm

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] ND588.D9 A3q)

Provenance: Gift of Sinclair Hamilton, Class of 1906

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: see no. 36

Princeton only (not illustrated)

 

Black  Aesthetic

 

38.

Jan Harmens. Muller (Dutch: Haarlem, 1571–1628), after Hendrick Goltzius (Dutch: Haarlem, 1558–1617)

The First Day, The Separation of Light and Dark (Dies 1)

From the series The Creation of the World, ca. 1593

Engraving (second state of two); diameter: 26.2 cm, sheet: 48 x 32.5 cm

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1953 (53.601.338[7])

Provenance: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1953, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Amsterdam 1993, no. 20 (Luijten); New Hollstein 1993-, Muller, part II, no. 36; Leeflang et al. 2003; Amsterdam 2008, no. 30 (de Ruijter); McGrath 2008, 53-36; Kolfin 2008, 72-73


39.

Cornelis Boel (Flemish, ca. 1576–ca. 1621) after a drawing by Otto van Veen (Flemish, 1556–1629)

Brown Berries Are Sweet of Taste

From Otto van Veen, Amorum emblemata [Emblems of love]. Antwerp: Venalia apud Auctorem, 1608.

Engraving; closed book: 15.5 x 21 x 3 cm

Inscriptions in Latin, English and Italian: [At top:] Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur (The white privets [flower] is left to fall, but the black hyacinth is picked) (From Virgil’s Eclogues, II.18)/ ---- placuit Cephëia Persei Andromade, patriae fusca colore suae. (Cepheus' Andromeda was fair in Perseus' eyes, though dusky with the hue of her native land.)(From Ovid’s Heroides 15, 35-36)/ Et violae nigrae sunt, et vaccinia nigra (Violets after all are black, as are hyacinth) (From Virgil’s Eclogues, X.39) [Followed by two poems:] Brown berries are sweet of taste [Title] Cupid not alwayes doth, shoot at the fayrest whyte, but at the lovely brown, moste often drawes his bow. Good gesture and fyne grace, he hath the skill to know, delighting for to chuse, the cause of his delight. / Gratia più che colore [Title] La bianca Amor per la brunette lassa/ Talhora; e perché no? se piu souente / La gratia de la bruna è Bruno è piu possente? / Piu fermo è’ l Bruno, e l’ color bianco passa.[Grace more than color. Cupid abandons the white one in favor of the brown one Sometimes; and why not? If more often the brown’s grace is more powerful? Brown is more firm, while white color vanishes] 

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] N7710.V53, p. 173)

Provenance: Gift of Sylvain S. Brunschwig

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Henkel and Schöne 1976, col. 309; Van Norden 1985, 135-170; Porteman 1996;  Buschhoff 2004, 98, 349; Amsterdam 2008, no. 25 (McGrath); McGrath 2008, 67-68


40.

Flemish or French (?)

Black Woman at Her Bath, 1580s  

Bronze; height 29.8 cm

The Robert H. Smith Collection

Provenance:  Private collection, Paris; Kunsthaus Lempertz, Cologne, 20-22 November 1975, lot 1771; collection of Edward and Kathleen (Kiyi) Pfluger, New York; Christie's, New York, 20 October 2006, lot 450; Blumka Gallery, New York, 2007, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Bückling 1991, no. 11

Comparative Bibliography: Washington 1986, no. 35 (Leithe-Jasper); Berlin 1995, no. 98 (Krahn); Munich 2002, no. 65 (Seelig-Teuwen); Amsterdam 2008, no. 24 (McGrath); McGrath 2008, 56-57

 

41.

Orazio Mochi, attributed to (Italian: Florence, 1571–1625)

Black Court Jester, 1600 - 1610

Bronze; 17.9 x 7.1 x 4.5 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, museum purchase, Renaissance & Baroque Fund, a generous grant, and individual donations through the Banner, Lewis, Tanner Circle, 2011 (54.3083)

Provenance: Abbot Guggenheim Collection, New York [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Sale, Sotheby's, New York, 27 January 2011, lot 450; Walters Art Museum, 2011, by purchase

Selected Bibliography:  Camins 1988, no. 33; Schwartz 2008, no. 59

Comparative Bibliography: Tietze-Conrat 1957; Avery 1995, no.41


42.

German or Italian

Black Female Nude, ca. 1600–1610 

Figure: rosewood, pedestal: gilded bronze, lapis lazuli, yellow marble; height 11.7 cm.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917 (17.190.755)

Provenance: Collection of Michel Boy until 1905; Collection of J. Pierpont Morgan; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1917, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Holo 1978/1979; Bober and Rubinstein 1986, no. 18 (also 2010 revised edition)


Class and Slavery


43.

Follower of Leone Leoni (Italian, ca. 1509–90)

Bust of Giacomo Maria Stampa, 1553

Marble; height: 98.6 cm

Inscription in Latin: IACOBVS MARIA / STAMPA / AN. LXVI. M.D.LIII (Giacomo Maria Stampa, at age 66, 1553)

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (27.229)

Provenance: Raoul Heilbronner, Paris [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Henry Walters, Baltimore [date and mode of acquisition unknown]; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest.

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Venturi 1937, 423, 463; Madrid 1994, no. 2, 3 (Coppel Areizaga); Di Dio 2011

 

44.

Jacques Callot (French, 1592–1635)

Slave Market, 1620     

Etching, first state; 16.1 x 25 cm

Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey, gift of Junius S. Morgan, class of 1888 (x1934-132)

Provenance: Acquired by Junius S. Morgan; Princeton University Art Museum, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Lieure 1924-27, 369 i

Comparative Bibliography: Bechtel 1955, no. 80; Washington 1963, no. 25, 26; Nancy 1992, no. 439-41 (Choné); Massing 2011, 187-89.


45. 

Theodore de Bry (Flemish, 1528–1598)

Spanish Sugar Plantation in the Caribbean

From Americae pars quinta…Girolamo Benzoni [America in five parts…]. Frankfurt: S. C. Maiestatis, 1595.

Engraving; 34.5 x 54 cm

Inscription in Latin:  NIGRITAE EXHAUSTIS VENIS METALLICIS conficiendo saccharo operam dare debent  [The black slaves, having exhausted the veins of precious ore, are shifted to work at the manufacturing of sugar.]

The George Peabody Library, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (910.B915 quarto)

Provenance:  The George Peabody Library, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Alexander 1976; Berger 1977-78; Greve 2004; Groesen 2008

Baltimore only


46. 

Theodor de Bry (Flemish, 1528–1598)

Spanish Sugar Plantation in the Caribbean

From America pars quinta…Girolamo Benzoni [America in five parts…]. Frankfurt: S. C. Maiestatis, 1595.

Engraving; 34.5 x 54 cm

Inscription in Latin:  NIGRITAE EXHAUSTIS VENIS METALLICIS conficiendo saccharo operam dare debent [The black slaves, having exhausted the veins of precious ore, are shifted to work at the manufacturing of sugar.)

Provenance:  The William H. Scheide Library, Princeton University (32.5.3)

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: see no. 45

Princeton only (not illustrated).


47.

Flemish ?

Public Square with the King’s Fountain in the Alfama District, Lisbon (Chafariz d’el Rey in the Alfama District), ca. 1570–80 

Oil on panel; 93 x 163 cm

The Berardo Collection, Lisbon

Provenance:  Art Market, Madrid, 1998

Selected Bibliography: Lisbon 1999, 104-107 (Pereira); Serrão 2002; Washington 2007, no. 13 (Serrão); Lowe 2005, 29, 41; Gschwend and Lowe 2010, 49-51, no. 10a-10b


Slaves and Servants

 

48.

Circle of Bartolomeo Passarotti (Italian, 1529–92)

Portrait of Domenico Giuliani and His Servant, 1579  

Oil on canvas; 121 x 92.2 cm

Manchester City Galleries, Manchester, England (1959.114)

Provenance: Col. T.H. Leathart; his sale, Sotheby's, 15 July 1931, lot 107, repr. as Pordenone; Francis Stonor; purchased from Colnaghi's July 1959

Selected Bibliography: Manchester 1980, 80; Höper 1987, no. A41; Kaplan 2010, 129


49.

Annibale Carracci, attributed to (Italian, 1560–1609)

Portrait of a Black Woman Slave, ca. 1580s

Oil on canvas; 60 x 39 x 2 cm (fragment of a larger double portrait)

Tomasso Brothers, Leeds, England

Provenance: Carlo Maratti (1625–1713), mentioned in his inventory of assets as ritratto d’una mora che tiene un orologio (portrait of a black woman holding a clock); Philip V of Spain, upon his death in 1745, mentioned in the Queen’s antechamber; given by the Quartermaster General for the province of Segovia, Ramón Luis de Escobedo to Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, just prior to August 1812; private collection, England, until 2005.

Selected Bibliography: De Nolhac 1876, 128-129, 143-144; Galli 1928, 59-78; Battisti 1960, 77-89; Bershad 1985, 65-84; Inventarios Reales. Carlos III. 1789, 1989, vol. 2, 231; Aterido 2004, vol. 1, 25-310; Aterido et al 2004, vol. 2, 15

Comparative Bibliography: Kaplan 2005


50.

Italian (Venice)

Cameo with Bust of an African Boy, Set in a Ring, 1580-1600   

Sardonyx, gold; overall: 1.6 x 1.1 cm, visible cameo: 1.6 x 1.3 cm

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the Milton Weil Collection, 1938 (38.150.27)

Provenance: The Milton Weil Collection, 1938

Selected Bibliography: Kris 1932, 18

Comparative Bibliography: McGrath 2008, 58-59; Schäffer 2009

 

51.

Italian

Double-sided Cameo with Black and White Roman-Era Generals Wearing Laurel Wreaths, 1580-1600

Sardonyx, gold; overall: 5.2 x 3.9 cm, visible cameo: 4.9 x 3.6 cm

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the Milton Weil Collection, 1938 (38.150.12)

Provenance: The Milton Weil Collection, 1938

Selected Bibliography: Kris 1930-31, 11; Weber 1992, 162 under no. 198; Draper 2008, 24

Comparative Bibliography: Schäffer 2009; Kaplan 2010

 

52.

Italian (Venice)

Head of an African Slave, 1560–90

Cast iron; 5.7 x 3.7 x 4.6 cm

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Samuel H. Kress Collection (1957.14.54)

Provenance: Gustave Dreyfus (1837–1914), Paris; his estate; Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York, 1930, by purchase; Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York, 1945, by purchase; National Gallery of Art, 1957, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Pope-Hennessy 1965, no. 521; Wilson 1983, 140; Washington 1994, 229

 

53.

Paolo Veronese (Paolo Caliari) (Italian:Venice, 1528–88)

Study of a Black Youth Eating, ca. 1580  

Black and white chalk on buff paper; 15.5 x 20 cm

Art market, New England

Provenance: Mrs. B.L. Stedell; A.G.B. Russell (L.2770a); Sale, London, Sotheby’s,  9 June 1959, 13; With Charles E. Slatkin Galleries, New York; Sale, Sotheby's 10 May 1961, lot 29; Samuel P. Reed, New York

Selected Bibliography:  Hadeln 1927, 7, no. 4; Tietze and Tietze-Conrat 1944, 347, no. A2109; Friedlander 1955, 53-54; Posner 1971, 20; Cocke 1984, 299, 307, no. 135; McGrath 1998, 272-76.


54.

Paolo Veronese (Paolo Caliari) (Italian:Venice, 1528–88)

Study of the Head of a Black Man, ca. 1573 

Black and white chalk on buff paper; 20 x 17.6 cm

Private collection, courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (L.1975.38.24)

Provenance: Richard Cosway; Charles Fairfax Murray; A.G.B. Russel; Sale, Sotheby’s, London, 9 June 1959, 12; Robert Lehman Collection, New York

Selected Bibliography: Tietze and Tietze-Conrat 1944, 347, A2108; New York 1965, no. 131 (Lehman); Cocke 1984, no. 68

 

55.

Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528)

Study of Katharina, 1521

Metalpoint on prepared light pink paper; 20 x 14.1 cm

Inscription in German: Katharina allt 20 Jar, 1521, AD (Katharina 20 years old, 1521, A[lbrecht] D[ürer])

Istituti museali della Soprintendenza Speciale per il Polo Museale Fiorentino, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi, Florence (1060 E)

Provenance: Recorded in the inventory of the Galleria degli Uffizi in 1784

Selected Bibliography: Strauss 1974, no. 1521/8; Washington 1991, no. 193 (Massing); Boogaart 2005, 414; Kaplan 2005, 154, Haarnack and Hondius 2008, 90-91; Koerner 2010, 56-57

Baltimore only


56.

Frans Crabbe van Espleghem (Flemish, ca. 1480–1552)

Black Man in Three-quarter Profile, 1522

Engraving; 10.2 x 6.7 cm

Inscription: 1522

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, purchase, Louis V. Bell Fund and Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1998 (1998.415)

Provenance: With Hill-Stone, Inc., Fine Prints and Drawings; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Louis V. Bell Fund and Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1998, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Orenstein 1999, 27; Filedt Kok and De Winkel 2005, 399-400

 

57.

Ludovico Carracci, attributed to (Italian, 1555–1619)

Head of a Black Man from the Rear

Studies of Hands, 1580 – 1600?

Black chalk on paper; 18.9x 15.2 cm

Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Muriel and Philip Berman Gift, acquired from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts with funds contributed by Muriel and Philip Berman and the Edgar Viguers Seeler Fund (by exchange), 1984 (1984-56-476)

Provenance: Sir Joshua Reynolds (Lugt 2364); William Paulet Carey (1759–1839), Dublin, London, and Birmingham; John Neagle (1796–1865), Philadelphia (purchased 24 February 1838); John S. Phillips (1800–1876), Philadelphia; bequest to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1876; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1984

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Bohn 2004; Kaplan 2010, 187-188


Free and Freed People of African Ancestry

 

58.

Johannes van Doetecum (Flemish, d. 1605) and Lucas van Doetecum (Flemish, active 1554–72, d. before 1589) after Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Flemish, 1525/30­–1569)

Two Black Flemish Peasants, ca. 1564/65  

From an untitled series of forty heads of Flemish country people

Etching, state ii; plate: 13.3 x 18.8 cm

Inscription: lower right in plate: 34; upper right in graphite: No 309

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Andrew W. Mellon Fund (1975.112.34), with [incorrectly] the title from state iii, the seventeenth-century edition: Bruyntje Springh-in’ –t-Bed and Flip de Duyvel (Little Brown Jump-in-the-Bed and Flip the Devil)

Provenance: Andrew W. Mellon Fund

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Bastelaer 1908, no. 275; New Hollstein 1993, Van Doetecum, part II, no. 374, state ii

 

59.

Francesco Torbido di Marco India, il Moro (Italian: Verona, ca. 1482–ca. 1562)

Portrait of a Man, possibly a self-portrait (?), ca. 1520  

Oil on canvas; 72 x 56 cm

Inscription in Latin: FRS. TURBIDUS. V. FACIEBAT [Francesco Torbido from Venice made {it}].

Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan (A14)

Provenance: Pinacoteca di Brera, 1888, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Repetto Contaldo 1984, 48

Comparative Bibliography: Viana 1933

 

60.

Luis de Vargas (Spanish, 1502–68)

Preparations for the Crucifixionn [with the Portrait of an Augustinian Donor], ca. 1565

Oil on panel transferred to canvas; 87.9 x 76.2 cm

Inscription in Latin: LUISIUS DE VARGAS FACIEBAT [Louis de Vargas made {it}].

Philadelphia Museum of Art, John G. Johnson Collection, 1917 (Cat. 805)

Provenance: John G. Johnson Collection; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1917, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Valentiner 1914, no. 805; Marceau 1953, 226


61.

Flemish or German (?)

Portrait of a Wealthy Black Man, ca. 1530-1540

Oil on panel; diameter without frame: 23.3 cm

Private Collection, Antwerp

Provenance: With Jacques Leegenhoek, Paris; private collection; With Galerie De Jonckheere, Paris; private collection, 2008, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished


62.

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo) (Italian: Florence, 1503–72)

Portrait of Duke Alessandro de’ Medici, after 1553

Oil on tin; 16 x 12.5 cm

Inscription in Latin: ALEX.MED.FLO. DUX.I.LAUREN.F. (Alessandro de’Medici, first duke of Florence, son of Lorenzo)

Istituti museali della Soprintendenza Speciale per il Polo Museale Fiorentino, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (inv. 1890, no. 857)

Provenance: Medici family, by commission; Guardaroba of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, from 1637 until at least 1769; transferred to the Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Selected Bibliography: Langedijk 1981, no. 1.6; Spicer 2001, 205-06; Brackett 2005, 311; Firpo and Lo Re 2005, 419-420; Florence 2009, 72; Florence 2010, no. 17f (Giordani)

Comparative Bibliography: Simon 1982; Klinger 1991; Philadelphia 2004, no. 25, 26 (Strehlke)

 

63.

Domenico di Polo di Angelo de’ Vetri (Italian, ca. 1480– ca. 1547)

Medal of Duke Alessandro I de’ Medici, 1510–1537, 1st Duke of Florence 1532 (obverse), first cast 1532

Bronze; diameter: 3.4 cm

Inscription In Latin: ALEXANDER MED FLORENTIAE DUX P [Alessandro de’ Medici, first duke of Florence]

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Samuel H. Kress Collection (1957.14.909)

Provenance: Gustave Dreyfus (1837–1914), Paris; his estate; Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York, 1930, by purchase; Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York, 1945, by purchase; National Gallery of Art, 1957, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Hill and Pollard 1967, no. 316; Philadelphia 2004, no. 36 (Strehlke); Pollard 2007, no. 361

Comparative Bibliography: Langedijk 1981, no. 1.35; Scher 2000; Brackett 2005


64.

Jacopo da Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) (Italian: Florence, 1494–1557)

Portrait of Maria Salviati de’ Medici and Giulia de’ Medici, ca. 1539

Oil on panel; 88 x 71.3 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, acquired by Henry Walters with the Massarenti Collection, 1902 (37.596)

Provenance: Medici Collections; Riccardo Romolo Riccardi, Palazzo Gualfonda, Florence, prior to 1612 until after 1814 [mode of acquisition unknown]; Don Marcello Massarenti Collection, Rome, prior to 1881 [mode of acquisition unknown] [1881 catalogue: no. 79; 1897 catalogue: no. 381]; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1902, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest.

Selected Bibliography: Zeri 1976, no. 211; Allegri and Cecchi 1981, 157; Langedijk 1981, 431, no 87.5; Cox-Rearick 1982, 74, 79; Simon 1982, 187-200; Cox-Rearick 1984, 236-37, 260; Costamagna and Fabre 1986, vol. 2, 374-77; Zafran 1988, no. 18; Berti 1990, 45-46, 48; Langdon 1992, 20-40; Costamagna 1994, 90, 285, no. 77;  Falciani 1995, 120-22; Cropper 1997, 3; Spicer 2001; Scalini 2001, 235; Pilliod 2001, 236; Washington 2001, no. 40 (Cropper); Florence 2002, no.33 (Costamagna); Levy 2003, 226-227; Pinelli 2004, 129, 132, 136-37; Philadelphia 2004, no. 30 (Strehlke); Hansen and Spicer 2005, 96-99 (Spicer); Langdon 2006, 32-47


Diplomats and Rulers


65.

Domenico Tintoretto (Italian: Venice, 1560-1635)

Portrait of a Man (a Moor), ca. 1590–1600

Oil on canvas; 127 x 101.6 cm

The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, gift of J.P. Morgan, Jr. (AZ072)                                                                 

Provenance: The Marquis of Dufferin, Ireland; With Thomas Agnew, London; J.P. Morgan, Jr., December 1929, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Rossi 1974, 147

Comparative Bibliography: Ridolfi [1642] 1984, 90-92

 

66.

Raffaello Schiaminossi, attributed to (Italian: Rome, active ca. 1608)

Portrait of Don Antonio Manuele de Funta, Maquis of Ne-Vunda, Ambassador of the King of the Congo to the Pope, 1608             

Etching and engraving; sheet 27.5 x 19.7 cm

Inscription in Italian: At top center left: Da Don Aluaro Re di Congo e'spedito Ambasciatore al Sommo Pontefice [From Don Alvaro King of the Congo is sent an ambassador to the Supreme Pontif]/ At top center right: Arriua in Roma et e'alloggiato nel Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano [He arrived in Rome and is lodged in the Vatican Apostolic Palace]/ At center, around oval portrait, in Latin: D. ANTONIVS EMANVEL MARCHIO DE WNTH ORATOR REGIS GONGI AD SVMMV PONT [Lord Antonio Manuele, Marquis of Funta, ambassador of the King of the Congo to the Supreme Pontif]/ At lower left: Cum Priuilegio Summi Ponteficis (By privilege of the Supreme Pontif]/ At lower right: Superiorum permissu [By permission of authorities]/ At lower center: Roma Ioans Antonis de Paulis Formis 1608 [Printed in Rome 1608 by Giovanni Antonio de Paoli]/; At lower center left: In articolo di morte è uisitato da N.S. Papa Paolo. V. (At the point of death he was visited by Our Lord Pope Paul V)/At lower center right: E' portato à sepellire con Regia Pompa in S. Maria Maggiore il giorno dell' Epifania [On the day of Epiphany he was carried for burial with regal pomp into Santa Maria Maggiore]/ At bottom: Questo Ambasciatore arríuo in Roma mercordi 2 di Gennaro 1608, incontrato da moltí Prelati e'Nobiltà fu allogiato nel Palazzo Apostolico doue per essere infermo dierede de ordine di Sua Sta gli furonio soministrate le cose necessarie a la sua cura fù uisitato da N.S. sendoglisi grauato il male hauuta la Sta Benedictione da sua Beatitudine à S. di detto alle 7 hore di notte passò a meglior uita et il giorno della Epifania alle 2. 3 hore có Regia Pompa fù portato à sepellire à S. Maria Maggiore hauendolo sua Sta fatto accompagnare dalla sua guardia suizzera dal Rme Patriarca Biondo da Vescoui assistenti di Cappella Prothonotaris Apostolíci et dalla sua famiglia, et offitiali Palatini à cauallo con habito purpuree et à 24 detto có Magnificenza Regia gli fuorno falte l'esqúie. Questo Ambasciaria è stata la prima mandata dal Re di Congo alla Sede Apca sendo questo Re D. Aluaro il 40 Re Xpiano Congo è un Regno nelle ultime parti del Africa ricchisso d’auorio ma pouerisso  di metalli si che in luogo di moneta si spendono gusci di lumachelle. Questo Regno p essere in Ethiopia produce li Popoli neri come era questo Ambasciatore ui si usa di andar nudo con una semplice coperta tessuta di fronde di palma se bene in Roma è uenuto nel habito che qui si uede.

The Baltimore Museum of Art, purchased as the gift of Lorraine and Mark Schapiro, Baltimore, and Print & Drawing Society Fund (BMA 1997.155)

Provenance: Boerner Inc. 1997, cat. 38; The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1997, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Hirth 1972, 997; Dackerman 1998, 16-17; Kaplan 2010, 161-165

Comparative Bibliography: Ferrer and Nocca 2003; Lowe 2007, 120-123


67.

Guillermus du Mortier (Flemish, active in Rome)

Portrait of Don Antonio Manuele de Funta, Marquis of Ne-Vunda, Ambassador of the King of the Kongo to the Pope (Rome: Giovanni Antonio di Paoli, 1608)

Engraving; 25.3 x 19.4 cm

Inscription in Latin: At top: ILLmo ET R.mo DNO CARDli D. ANT.o ZAPATA TIT: Stae CRUCIS IN HIERUSALEM PROTECTORI HISPANIAE [To the most illustrious and most reverend Lord Cardinal Antonio Zapata, Titular-Priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Protector of Spain]. Guilermus du Mortier.belga. [Guillermus du Mortier, Belgian]/ Surrounding portrait oval: D. ANTONIUS EMANUEL MARCHIO DE WNTH ET AMBASSATOR REGIS GONGI. [Lord Antonio Emanuel, Marquis of Funta and Ambassador of the King of the Congo]/ At bottom: Obiit Romae Die. 6. Januarii. 1608. Sepultus in Basilica Stae Mariae Maioris de Urbe [He died in Rome on the 6th day of January 1608. Buried in the Basilica of Sant  a Maria Maggiore of the city].  G. du M. Duaientis Inis. et fecit Romae [Guillermus du Mortier of Douai engraved and printed it at Rome] Io. Ant. de Paulis formis Romae [Giovanni Antonio de Paoli published at Rome].  Cum privilegio. Superiorum permissu [With an {official} privilege {and} by permission of the authorities].

Private Collection, London

Provenance: Oettingen-Wallenstein Collection; bt. Grosvenor Prints, London

Selected Bibliography: Kaplan 2010, 161-165

Comparative Bibliography: Ferrer and Nocca 2003; Lowe 2007, 120-123

 

68.

Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577–1640)

Head of a North African Man Wearing a Turban, ca. 1609

Oil on paper, laid down on panel; 54 x 39 cm (excl. later strip of ca. 83 mm along left side)

Private Collection, courtesy of Jean-Luc Baroni Ltd, London   

Provenance: E. Christopher Norris, Polesden Lacey, Great Bookham, near Dorking, Surrey; his sale, London, Sotheby’s 23 May 1951, lot 96 (unsold); his posthumous sale, Christie’s, London, 11 December 1987, lot 19 (unsold); by descent to a private collection, England, until 2004; private collection

Selected Bibliography: Boston 1994, 235-236 (Wieseman); Madrid 2004, 59-60; London 2005, no. 7 (Ongpin); Meganck 2007-2008, 62-64; Amsterdam 2008, no. 16 (Auwera); Massing 2011, 279-280


69.

Cristofano dell’Altissimo (Italian, ca. 1525–1605)

Portrait of Sultan Caith Bey, ca. 1590

Oil on panel; 60 x 44 cm

Inscription in Latin:  ∙MAG ∙ CAITBEIUS CAIRI ∙ SVLTAN (Great Caith Bey Sultan of Cairo)

Istituti museali della Soprintendenza Speciale per il Polo Museale Fiorentino, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (inv. 1890, no. 8)

Provenance: Medici family, by commission; Guardaroba of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence; transferred to the Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Selected Bibliography: Minonzio 2006, 673; Florence 2009, 94


 

70.

Cristofano dell’Altissimo (Italian, ca. 1525–1605)

Portrait of Alchitrof, “King of Ethiopia,” 1560–90

Oil on panel; 60 x 45 cm

Inscription in Latin:  ALCHITROF ∙ AETHIOPIAE REX [Alchitrof  King of Ethiopia]

Istituti museali della Soprintendenza Speciale per il Polo Museale Fiorentino, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (inv. 1890, no. 3065)

Provenance: Medici family, by commission; Guardaroba of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence; transferred to the Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Selected Bibliography:  Florence 2009, 90; Massing 2011, 128

Comparative Bibliography: Schlesinger 1993, 117-23,129-37


71.

Cristofano dell’Altissimo (Italian, ca. 1525–1605)

Portrait of Emperor Dawit III, before 1568

Oil on panel; 58 x 43 cm

Inscription in Latin:  ∙ATANADI ∙ DINGHIL ∙ MAGNUS ∙ ABYSSINORUM ∙ REX/ VVLGO ∙ PRETEIANES APELLATUS ∙ 1532 [Atanadi Dinghil the Great King of the Abyssinians/ Called Preteianes by the People 1532]

Istituti museali della Soprintendenza Speciale per il Polo Museale Fiorentino, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (inv. 1890, no. 1)

Provenance: Medici family, by commission; Guardaroba of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence; transferred to the Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Selected Bibliography: Florence 1979, no. Ic41; Minonzio 2006, 937; Florence 2009, 62

Comparative Bibliography: Klinger 1991; Zimmerman 1995


72.

Tobias Stimmer (Swiss, 1539–1584)

Portrait of Emperor Dawit III

From Paolo Giovio, Pavli Iovii Novocomensis episcopi nucerini Elogia virorum bellica virtute illustrium [The Praises of illustrious men of martial virtue of Paolo Giovio of Como, bishop of Nocera] (Basel: P. Pernae opera ac studio, 1575)

Woodcut; 30.9 x 38.1 cm

Inscription in Latin: At top: David Maximus Abyssinorum Aethiopum Rex (David the Greatest King of Ethiopia of the Abyssinians)

George Peabody Rare Book Library, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (923.5 G514 quarto, p. 355)

Provenance: The George Peabody Library, by purchase

Baltimore only

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Giovio 2006

 

73.

Paolo Giovio (Italian, 1483–1552)

Musaei Ioviani imagines artifice manu ad vivum expressae.[Images/portraits from the Giovio museum reproduced with great skill on the basis of studies from life.].  Basel: Ex officina Petri Pernae, 1577.

Closed book: 22.5 x 16.5 x 1.5 cm

Princeton University Library, Princeton, Rare Books and Special Collections ([Ex] 1038.392.3)

Provenance: Gift of Silvain S. Brunschwig, 1956

Princeton only (not illustrated)


74.

Ethiopian

Hand Cross, 13th-15th century (incorrectly in printed catalogue as 11th–12th century)

Iron; 37.5 x 10.4 x 0.8 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, gift of Nancy and Robert Nooter, 1997 (52.296)

Provenance: Knopfelmacher Collection, New York; with the William Wright Gallery, New York; Nooter Collection, 1990; Walters Art Museum, 1997, by gift

Selected Bibliography: Baltimore 2001, no. 7 (Mann); Mann 2001

Comparative Bibliography: Alvarez [1520] 1961; Moore 1971


 

75.

Map of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

From Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum [Theater of the World]. Antwerp: Aegidius Radeus, 1592.

Engraving and watercolor; 41 x 53.5 cm

Inscription in Latin: smaller cartouche:  PRESBITERI IOHANNIS, SI-VE, ABISSINO-RUM IMPERII DESCRIPTIO [Description/ Map of the Empire of Presbyter John, or rather of the Abyssinians]. Larger cartouche:  Titulus & Insignia Presbiteri Io[ann]is  [Title and attributes of Prester John].  DAVID SVPREMVS MEORVM REGORVM, A | DEO VNICE DILECTVS, COLVMNA FIDEI, | ORTVS EX STIRPE IVDA, FILIVS DAVID, | FILIVS SALOMONIS, FILIVS COLVMNAE | SIONIS, FILIVS EX SEMINE IACOB, FILIVS | MANVS MARIAE,FILIVS NAHV SECVNDÛ | CARNEM,FILIVS SANCTORVM PETRI ET | PAVLI SECVNDVM GRATIAM;IMPERATOR | SVPERIORIS ET MAIORIS AETHIOPIAE,ET | AMPLISSIMORVM REGNORVM IVRISDIC:|TIONVM ET TERRARVM;REX GOAE,CAFFA:|TES,FA TIGAR,ANGOTAE,BARV,BALIGVANZAE, | ADEAE,VANGVAE,GOIAMAE, VBI NILI FONTES, | AMARAE,BAGVAMEDRI,AMBEAE,VANGVCI, | TIGREMAHON,SABAIM PATRIAE REGINAE SA:|BAE,BARNAGASSI;ET DOMINVS VSQVE IN NV:|BIAM QVAE IN AEGYPTVM EXTENDITVR. [Honorary title of Prester John/King David is the highest of my Kings. [I, Prester John], specially chosen by God, pillar of faith, born from the tribe of Judah, son of David, son of Salomo, son of the pillar of Zion, son from the seed of Jacob, son of the hand of Maria, son of Nahum's flesh, son of the holy Peter and Paul in mercy, emperor of upper and great Æthiopia, and of the legal grounds and countries of the most elevated kingdoms; king of Goa, Caffates, Fatigar, Angota, Baru, Balinguanza, Adea, Vangua, Goiama where the Nile has its sources, of Amara, Banguamedrum, Ambea, Vangucum, Tigremahon, of Saba, homeland of the Queen of Saba, of Barnagassum and Lord of all of Namibia, extending all the way to Egypt]

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (92.104)

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: Broecke 1996; Broecke, Krogt, and Meurer 1998; Binding 2003

Baltimore only


76.

Abraham Ortelius

Map of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

Separate map, from Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerp: apud Ioannem Bapt. Vrintium, 1603.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

Engraving and watercolor; 35 x 42 cm

Inscriptions in Latin: See no. 75

Princeton University Library, Princeton, Rare Books: Historic Maps Collection (HMC01.3718)

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: See no. 75

Princeton only (not illustrated)

 

77.

Andrés Sánchez Galque (Ecuadorian: Quito, active ca. 1599)

Portrait of Don Francisco de Arobe and his Sons Pedro and Domingo (Los tres mulatos de Esmeraldas), 1599

Oil on canvas; 92 x 175 cm

Inscription in Spanish: DON Po 22 A.S/ DON FRANco DE AROBE 56 Aos/ DO DOMINGO 18 AS (Don Pedro 22 years old; Don Francisco de la Robe 56 years old; Don Domingo 18 years old).

Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid (P04778)

Provenance: Painted for Philip III of Spain, 1599; Transferred from the Royal Collection to the Prado

Selected Bibliography: Price 1996, cover ill.; Philadelphia 2006, no. VI-70 (Cummins); Massing 2011, 153-156

Comparative Bibliography: Philadelphia 2006, 39-55


78.

Veraguas-Gran Chiriquí (present-day Panama)

Pair of Earrings with Flat Bar and Three Suspended Discs, 800–1521 ce

Gold alloy; each: 2.7 x 3.3 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (57.351, 57.352)

Provenance: Tiffany & Co., New York, 1910, by purchase; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1911, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Baltimore only

Selected Bibliography:  Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: McEwan 2000


79.

Colombian

Nose Ring with Oval Disc, 700–1500 ce

Hammered gold alloy; 4.3 x 5.3 cm

The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (57.361)

Provenance: Tiffany & Co., New York; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1910, by purchase; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest

Baltimore only

Selected Bibliography: Unpublished

Comparative Bibliography: McEwan 2000


80.

José Montes de Oca, attrib. (Spanish, ca. 1668–1754)

Saint Benedict of Palermo (the Moor), ca. 1734

Polychrome and gilt wood with glass; 124.5 x 88 x 41.9 cm

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The John R. Van Derlip Fund (2010.27.2)

Provenance: Private collection, Milan; With the Matthiesen Gallery; Minneapolis Institute of Art, by purchase

Selected Bibliography: Gates 2009, 36-44; London 2009, no. 18 (Morales); Stoichita 2010, 212-16

Comparative Bibliography: Fiume and Modica 1998; Minnich 2005, 298-99